Santorini’s geomorphology is the result of hundreds of thousands of years of volcanic activity and presents a large variety and wealth of pre volcano limestone layers (in Prophet Elias, Monolithos, Gavrilos), shale rocks in Athinios and volcanic pyroclastic rocks, lavas and thick layers of Theran earth, which consist the ground of the island. The terrain is more gentle to the east side, where the croplands lead to the beaches.
Vines, cereals (barley mainly), legumes, fava and, in the older days, cotton have been the basic crops from ancient times.
Santorini is one of the most arid regions of the Aegean Sea, due to lack in underground wells and to very few rainfalls. The climate is temperate and the temperatures are quite high during winter, while in the summer the heat mitigates the wind.